Quality Safety

Regulation structure of EASA

Written by Petra Čubelić

When we board an airplane, we trust that every aspect of the flight has been flawlessly regulated and monitored for our safety. Behind the scenes, an organization called the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) plays a vital role in upholding the highest standards of aviation safety in Europe. In this article, we will explore the fundamental aspects of EASA in a simple and understandable manner, shedding light on its purpose, responsibilities, and impact on air travel.

The European Union Aviation Safety Agency, commonly known as EASA is an independent agency established by the European Union (EU) in 2002 to enhance aviation safety across Europe. EASA acts as a regulatory body, working in collaboration with EU member states, to harmonize safety standards and promote a unified approach to aviation safety. One of EASA’s crucial roles is to harmonize regulations across EU member states. Before EASA’s establishment, each country had its own set of rules and requirements, leading to inconsistencies and potential safety gaps. EASA’s harmonization efforts streamline safety regulations, creating a unified framework that ensures consistency and facilitates cross-border operations within Europe. EASA works closely with industry stakeholders, national aviation authorities, and experts to develop and refine safety regulations. By fostering collaboration, EASA benefits from the collective knowledge and experience of professionals from various sectors, including aircraft manufacturers, airlines, pilot associations, and maintenance organizations. This collaboration ensures that regulations reflect the latest technological advancements and industry best practices. EASA’s impact extends beyond Europe, as it actively contributes to international aviation safety efforts. Through collaborations with other regulatory bodies such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), EASA shares expertise, best practices, and safety standards on a global scale. This collaboration ensures a consistent and harmonized approach to aviation safety worldwide.

At its core, EASA’s primary mission is to ensure the highest level of safety in European aviation. It achieves this by developing regulations, setting standards, and overseeing compliance with these standards. EASA regulations are established within the broader legislative framework of the European Union. The European Commission proposes legislative acts, and the European Parliament and Council adopt them. These acts provide the legal basis for EASA to develop detailed regulations to address various aspects of aviation safety. At the core of EASA’s regulatory structure are the Basic Regulations. These are overarching legislative acts that define the scope, objectives, and key principles of aviation safety in Europe. The Basic Regulations grant EASA the authority to issue detailed regulations and implement safety-related tasks. Implementing Regulations are a crucial component of EASA’s regulatory framework, designed to establish specific and detailed rules that address various technical and operational aspects of aviation safety. While the basic principles and requirements of aviation safety are outlined in the Basic Regulation, implementing regulations provide the necessary specificity and guidance to ensure uniformity and consistency across all member states of the European Union.

One of the key functions of implementing regulations is to provide comprehensive guidelines for compliance with safety standards. These regulations go beyond broad principles and establish specific requirements that must be met by aircraft manufacturers, operators, pilots, maintenance organizations, and other stakeholders in the aviation industry. By setting out clear expectations and standards, implementing regulations help to enhance aviation safety by minimizing risks and ensuring a high level of operational performance.

One crucial aspect is set of regulations and requirements for the airworthiness which can be classified into initial, additional and continuing airworthiness. This involves process of certifying an aircraft or aeronautical product as airworthy before it enters into service, modifications or alterations made to an already certified aircraft or aeronautical product and ongoing maintenance and regulatory oversight required to ensure that an aircraft or aeronautical product remains airworthy throughout its operational life. Initial, additional and continuing airworthiness are regulated in EASA’s Annexes Part-21, Part-26, Part-M, Part-145, Part-66, Part-147, Part-T, Part-ML, Part-CAMO and Part-CAO.

Aircrew licensing is another area addressed by implementing regulations. These regulations establish the requirements and procedures for obtaining and maintaining aircrew licenses, including the qualifications, experience, and training necessary for different types of aircraft and operations personnel. This is specifically regulated in EASA’s Annexes Part-FCL, Conversion of non EU license, Licenses of non EU states, Part- MED, Part-CC, Part ARA, Part-ORA and Part-DTO.

Air operations, including flight planning, dispatch, and operational procedures, are extensively regulated through implementing regulations as well. These regulations cover areas such as flight and duty time limitations, operational procedures for various types of operations (e.g., commercial air transport, general aviation, aerial work), and the requirements for air operators to establish safety management systems. By setting clear guidelines for operational practices, implementing regulations help prevent incidents and accidents during flight operations. This is specifically regulated in Annexes Part-ARO, Part-ORO, Part-Cat, Part-SPA, Part-NCC, Part-NCO and Part-SPO.

Implementing regulations also address third country operators, air traffic management, air traffic controllers and aerodromes. These regulations cover areas such as communication, navigation, surveillance, and air traffic control procedures. They aim to ensure the safe, efficient, and orderly flow of air traffic while minimizing the risk of collisions and maintaining an optimal level of airspace operations. Abovementioned topics are regulated in Annexes Part-TCO, Part-ART, Part-ATM/ANS.AR, Part-ATS, Part-MET, Part-AIS, Part-DAT, Part-CNS, Part-ATFM, Part-ASM, Part- FPD, Part-NM, Part-ATCO.AR, Part-ATCO.OR, Part-ATCO.MED, Part-ADR.AR, Part-ADR.OR and Part-ADR.OPS.

In summary, implementing regulations play a vital role in EASA’s regulatory framework by providing detailed rules and guidelines for compliance in various areas of aviation safety. They contribute to harmonization across member states by establishing uniform standards and procedures, ultimately enhancing the safety and efficiency of aviation operations within the European Union

To assist stakeholders in understanding and implementing the regulations, EASA provides additional guidance in the form of Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) and Guidance Material. AMCs offer one acceptable way of meeting the regulatory requirements, while Guidance Material provides recommendations and best practices. These resources aid operators, manufacturers, maintenance organizations, and other stakeholders in complying with the regulations effectively.

EASA follows a transparent and inclusive rulemaking process to develop and amend regulations. It involves consultation with industry stakeholders, expert groups, and EU member states. The rulemaking process ensures that regulations are based on the latest safety data, technological advancements, and industry best practices. Stakeholders have the opportunity to provide feedback and contribute to the development of regulations, fostering a collaborative approach to aviation safety.

In conclusion we can securely say that EASA stands as a cornerstone of aviation safety in Europe. By harmonizing regulations, fostering collaboration, and overseeing compliance, EASA plays a vital role in ensuring safe skies for millions of passengers each day. Through its dedicated efforts, EASA continues to shape and enhance the European aviation landscape, making air travel safer and more efficient. Whether we are aware of it or not, EASA’s unwavering commitment to aviation safety impacts us all and allows us to soar with confidence in the European skies.

About the author

Petra Čubelić